سه شنبه 2 مرداد 1397  11:16 ق.ظ
توسط: Wendy Lee

Abbas Wafaa,Ibrahim Taghreed: Fish Skeletal Deformities: Forms, Causes and Diagnosis

Fish Skeletal Deformities: Forms, Causes and Diagnosis



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Author: Abbas Wafaa,Ibrahim Taghreed
Number of Pages: 68 pages
Published Date: 22 Oct 2015
Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Publication Country: United States
Language: English
ISBN: 9783659787126
Download Link: Click Here
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Skeletal deformities widely occur in both marine and freshwater fishes. Various types of deformities have been reported in different fish species, these include lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis, mandibular deformities, semi-opened operculum, stump body, pug-head, double fins, fin fusion and cross bits. Skeletal deformities occurred due to many causes; chemical, physical and biological. The biological causes include viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. Also nutritional causes as phosphorus and vitamin C deficiency, high levels of vitamin A and finally genetic causes. Deformities can be diagnosed using clinical examination, radiography, sonography, histopathology, staining techniques and genetic analysis. Radiography and sonography are the two most rapid techniques available for detecting skeletal deformities. Other less rapid diagnostic techniques include histopathology, special staining and genetic analysis. Skeletal deformities can affect the normal physiological functioning of fish by disrupting buoyancy, which may ultimately hinder the ability of fish to eat, reproduce and avoid predators. Increased incidences of skeletal deformities among commercial fish species are suggest


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